Photoperiodism

2:25 pm in Help the project by testing this, Plants by Ziska Burg

January 19, 2012

 

As an addition to Brittas Light Blog-Post, I want to share with you what I researched.

This Blog is about Photoperiodism, an phenomenon which we can use to influence our Plants if we want to. But there exist many other means to influence Plants like Temperature, Color of the Light,  intesity of Light, Nutritions, Ph,…

Photoperiodism is about the length of the light and dark period in 24h.  With the length of uninterrupted darkness as a critical Part.

 

Short-day Plants (SD) need fewer than a certain number of hours of light in 24 hours to maintain or induce a special effect.

Long-day Plants (LD) need more than a certain number of hours of Light.

Intermediate-day Plants (ID) need more than … hours of light but less then … .

Day-neutral Plants (DN) are indifferent to the length of light for the effect you want.

Temperature can influence a Plants category. And some Plants need short days for a time before they become Long-day Plants (and the other way Round). Some need their special Light periode or they wont flower (or somthing)(absolute Effect) and some just benefit from their Light period and flower more (quantitative/qualitativ Effect).

 

We want to influence Flowering

For that effect I have found some Tables of Plants and their categories:

q= quantitative/qualitativ Effect (means if you change the lightning to the preferred form you can get more flowers or a better effect, but the Plant doesn’t necessarily need the lighting length to flower)
a= absolute Effect (needs the lightning or it won’t flower. -> all Flowers that have nothing else added (probably)
lT= low Temperature, hT= high Temperature

If nothing noteted behind they are probably absolute (or not) but it definitly has an effect. The Latin names are from the Book and the explanation is from wikipedia and can be falsly interpreted by me.

 

Short-day Plants

Allium cepa (lT<8° for sev. weeks otherwise DN, q?) – Onion – ger: Zwiebel

Amarantus caudatus/graecizans (q?) – Grain alternative, vegetable

Ambrosia elatior – weed – ger: Unkraut

Andropogon virginicus(q?)/ gerardii – a grass – ger: Grassorte

Bryophyllum pinnatum – medical Plant: Leaf of Life – ger: Heilpflanze: Brutblatt

Cannabis sativa ‘Kentucky’ (q?)

Cattleya trianae – Orchids Flower

Chenopodium rubrum (q?)/albrum (hT SD, lT DN, ID?) – goosefoots – ger: Gänsefüße

Chrysanthemum morifolium (lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ indicum - Flower

Coffea arabica – one Sort of Coffee Plant

Cosmos bipinnatus (q)/sulphureus ‘Orange Flare’ (DN hT, SD lT), ‘Klondike’ – Flower

Datura stramonium (q, older Plants DN) – Thorn apple (poisonous)

Euphorbia pulcherrima (SD hT, LD lT) -Flower: Christmas Star

Fragaria x ananassa (SD hT, q lT) – Strawberry

Glycine max ‘Biloxi’ (q?), ‘Mandell’ (q) – Soybean

Gossypium hirsutum (q) – Upland Cotton

Helianthus annuus (q)/ tuberosus (q) – Sunflower

Holcus sudanensis (q SD hT, DN lT) – grass

Impatiens balsamina (DN?)- medical Plant: Garden-/ Rose Balsam

Ipomoea batatas (q?)- Sweet potatoes (Some sorts are poisonus – check before)

Ipomoea purpurea ‘Heavenly Blue’ (SD hT, LD lT) – Flower: Morning Glory

Kalanchoe blossfeldiana – Flower

Lemna perpusilla – freshwater aquarium Plant

Lespedeza stipulacea – Flower: Corean Clover

Malva verticillata (q SD hT, DN lT) – Chinese Mallow

Nicotiana tabacum ‘Maryland’, ‘Mammoth’ (SD hT, DN lT) – sounds unhealthy

Oryza sativa (q?, DN?) – Asian Rice

Perilla crispa (lT flowers slowly with LD) – Chinese basil, purple mint, rattlesnake weed

Pharbitis nil (SD hT, DN lT) – Flower: Morning Glory

Phaseolus lunatus (DN?) – lima bean, butter bean

Phaseolus vulgaris (SD for fruit development, DN flowering?) – bean

Saccharum spontaneum (q) – grass

Salvia splendens (SD hT, DN or q SD lT) – Scarlet Sage – ger: Feuersalbei (Herb or Flower?)

Senecio cruentus (q) – Flower

Solanum tuberosum – Potato

Xanthium strumarium – medical, toxic

Zea mays (DN?) – Maize / Corn – ger: Mais

Zinnia x hybrida (q) – Flower

Zygocactus truncatus (q SD hT, DN lT) – cactus

 

Long-day Plants

Agropyron smithii - Western wheatgrass

Agrostemma githago (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower: Corncockle (poisonus)

Agrostis nebulosa/ palustris - bentgrass

Alopecurus pratensis – Grass: Meadow Foxtail

Anagallis arvensis/ tenella (lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower: Scarlet / Bog pimpernel

Anethum graveolens – Herb: Dill

Anthemis cotula (q LD hT, DN lT) – Flower: stinking chamomile

Antirrhinum majus (q LD hT, DN lT) – Flower: Snapdragon

Arabidopsis thaliana & biennial strains (lT<8° for sev. weeks) - thale cress (research model)

Arenaria serpyllifolia (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) - Thyme-leaved Sandwort

Avena sativa winter strains (lT<8° for sev. weeks, Short-long-day Plants without lT), spring strains – Oat – ger: Hafer

Begonia semperflorens (q LD hT, DN lT) – Flower

Beta saccharifera & vulgaris (lT<8° for sev. weeks, q LD at hT) – ?

Brassica pekinensis (lT LD, q LD at hT)/ rapa (q) - Celery cabbage

Bromus inermis (lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Grass

Calamintha acinus = Acinos arvensis (lT<8° for sev. weeks) - Basil thyme

Camelia japonica (q) – Flower: Japanese Camellia part of the tea Familly

Campanula primulifolia (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – ?

Centaurea cyanus (q LD hT, DN lT) - Cornflower

Cheiranthus cheiri (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower: Aegean wallflower

Chrysanthemum maximum – (I don’t know about maximum but C. morifolium has medicinal and herbal uses)

Cichorium inybus (LD hT, DN lT)/ endivia (q at lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Salad:  Chicory/ Endivie (we don’t want to induce flowering there? or only for new seeds)

Delphinium cultorum (LD lT, DN hT) – Flower – Larkspur? Poisonus, medicinal

Dianthus arenarius & caesius & gallicus & graniticus (lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ barbatus & caryophyllus (q lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ prolifera (q)/ superbus – Flower

Digitalis purpurea (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower poisonus

Euphorbia pulcherrima (SD hT, LD lT) -Flower: Christmas Star

Festuca elatior – grass

Fuchsia hybrida ‘Lord Byron’ – Flower

Hibiscus syriacus – Flower: Rose of Sharon

Hordeum vulgare winter strains (lT<8° for sev. weeks, Short-long-day Plants without lT), spring strains (q) – Grain: Barley – Gerste

Hyoscyamus niger anual strain, biennial strain (lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Poisonus, medicinal -Henbane

Iberis intermedia ‘Durandii’ (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – ?

Ipomoea purpurea ‘Heavenly Blue’ (SD hT, LD lT) – Flower: Morning Glory

Lactuca sativa (q lT<8° for sev. weeks, q LD hT, DN lT) – Salad: Lettuce – Kopfsalat

Lemna gibba G3 – Duckweed - bucklige Wasserlinse

Leucanthemum cobennense (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower

Lithospermum arvense (lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower

Lolium italicum/ perenne (lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ temulentum ‘Ceres’, ’6139′& ’6137′  (lT<8° for sev. weeks), ‘Ba’ (q) – Grass

Lychnis coronaria (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower

Lysimachia nemorum – Flower

Matthiola incana (q LD hT, DN lT) – Flower: hoary stock

Medicago minima/ sativa (q LD hT, DN lT) – burclover

Melilotus alba – medicinal: honey clover

Mentha piperita ‘Vulgaris’ – herbal, medicinal: Peppermint – Pfefferminze

Myosotis hispida (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Flower: Forget-me-not?

Nicotiana sylvestris/ tabacum ‘Havana’ (q) – sounds unhealthy

Nigella arvensis & damascena (q) – spice herb: love-in-a-mist – Schwarzkümmel

Oenothera acaulis, biennis& lamarckiana& logniflora& parviflora biennis& stricta& suaveolens (lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ rosea (q) – Flower: Evening primrose

Petunia hybrida (q LD hT, DN lT) – Flower

Phalaris arundinacea – aquatic: reed canarygrass

Phleum nodosum/ pratense – Grass

Phlox paniculata – Flower: Garden Phlox

Pisum sativum ‘Tall Telephone’ (late flowering, q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Pea – Erbse

Poa pratensis (q LD hT, DN lT) – Grass

Raphanus sativus – Radish – Radieschen

Rudbeckia bicolor (LD lT, DN hT)/ hirta/ speciosa – Flower

Samolus parviflorus – aquatic: water rose

Saxifraga hypnoides – ornamental, ‘yukinoshita’ can be eaten

Scabiosa canescens (q lT<8° for sev. weeks)/ ukranica – Flower

Scrophularia arguta (q) – medicinal: figworts – Braunwurz

Secale cereale winter strains (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Rye – Roggen

Sedum spectabile/ telephium – Flower

Silene armeria (LD, lT<8° for sev. weeks will substitute partly LD requirements as well as hT (32°) SD) – carnivorous Plant?

Sinapis alba (q LD at high irradiances, q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – herbal spice: White Mustard

Solanum nigrum (q LD hT, DN lT)/ tuberosum (q) – Careful! There are Poisonus strains that can be fatal! The other strains can be used to eat, as spice or medicinal: Black Nightshade

Sonchus oleraceus (q) – Herbal medicine/ spice, eatable: Milkweed – Gänsedistel

Spinacia oleracea (LD, lT<8° for sev. weeks will substitute partly LD requirements) – Spinach – Spinat

Teucrium scorodonia (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – herbal: wood sage – Salbei- Gamander

Trifolium aestivum winter strain (lT<8° for sev. weeks, Short-long-day Plants without lT)/ pratense ‘English Montgomery’, ‘American Medium’ (q)/ subterraneum (LD, lT<8° for sev. weeks will substitute partly LD requirements) – medicinal, food, large quantity consumption mildly toxic: Clover – Klee

Triticum aestivum spring strains (q), winter strains (q lT<8° for sev. weeks) – Wheat – Weich Weizen

Tropaeolum majus (LD hT, DN lT) – herb spice, medicinal, ornamental: monks cress – Kapuzinerkresse

Vicia sativa (q LD hT, DN lT) – vetch (can be eaten)

 

Long-short-day

Plants that need a Period of Long-days followed by Short-days to flower

Aloe bulbilifera

Bryophyllum crenatum & tubiflorum & verticillata

Cestrum aurantiacum & diurnum/ nocturnum (LSD at 23°C, DN >24°C)/ reflexum (<19°C)

 

Short-long-day

Plants that need a Period of Short-days followed by Long-days to flower

Echeveria harmsii

Scabiosa succisa

Trifolium repens

Symphyandra hoffmannii

 

Intermediate-day

Plants need more than … hours of light but less then …

 

 

more to come soon   I will try to find the ‘change’ button and add more Plants gradually

A little bit of encouragement in the comments would be greatly appreciated!

And People who want to test these findings (at least for interesting Plants *gg*) are very welcome!

Zis

editet January 20, 2012 – Found the ‘edit’ button ;-) addet more Short-day Plants and explanations

editet January 21, 2012 – all Short-day Plants from the Book ‘Photoperiodism in Plants’ not yet all the explanations

editet January 22, 2012 – more explanations, probably possible to grow in Windowfarm -> underlined , interesting if possible to grow -> grey

editet January 23, 2012 – Short-day Plants explanations finished , long-day Plants started

editet January 29, 2012 – finished adding Long-day Plants

editet February 2, 2012 – added Long-day Plants explanations

editet February 10, 2012 – absulute – quantitativ/qualitativ explanations as far as I know -> should look up absolute Plants but it’s not clearly said most of the time , added all explanations on Long-day, added all LSD, added some SLD

 

Sources:

Photoperiodism in Plants – Vince-Prue, Daphne – 1975
http://lifeofplant.blogspot.com/2011/03/photoperiodism.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-night_plant